Andalucía was once home to the powerful Iron Age civilization of the Tartessians. This ancient culture left behind a rich legacy, including beautiful art and architecture. Today, visitors can explore the remains of the Tartessian civilization at several different sites in Andalucía. The most famous is undoubtedly the ruins of the city of Tartessos, which is located near present-day Seville. However, other notable Tartessian sites include the Necropolis of El Portús, the Cerro de los Cascajos complex, and the Sanctuary of Zeus Soter. Each of these sites offers a unique opportunity to learn about the Iron Age civilization that once thrived in Andalucía.
Iron Age Iberia has two focuses: the Hallstatt-related Urnfields of the North-East and the Phoenician colonies of the South. During this period, Celts came to Iberia in several waves, possibly starting before 600 BC.Iberian Iron-Age weapons are extremely rare in western Andalusia due mainly to the absence of normative cremation cemeteries typical of other areas in the Peninsula. This means that because there are fewer cremation cemeteries in western Andalusia, there are fewer opportunities to find Iron-Age weapons that may have been buried with the deceased. Cremation cemeteries were places where nearly all of the approximately six thousand Iron Age weapons that we know have been documented.
Starting from Málaga, visitors who have rented a car with malagacar.com may want to take a road trip to discover new places and learn more about this fascinating period in history.
Towards 800 BC a remarkable culture existed in western Andalusia. Connected by trade with the Phoenicians, Tartessus developed; the mythical king Argantonio - king of silver - reigned over the kingdom. Many communities were devoted to the iron industry, trade and farming. The province of Huelva is rich in ore and silver and copper mining has left a deep mark of social, economic and landscape transformation. Right from the Bronze Age in Tartessus, under the Romans, during the Muslim domination, up to the presence of English mining companies in the 19th century.
The Riotinto region of Huelva is home to some of the most important Iron Age sites in Spain. The region was first settled by the Celts in the 8th century BC, and it soon became an important center of iron production. The Celts built numerous hillforts and mines in the Riotinto area, and the Roman historian Pliny the Elder described it as "the richest iron-bearing territory in all of Spain." In the 2nd century BC, the Riotinto mines were taken over by the Romans, who continued to operate them for centuries. Today, visitors can explore some of these ancient mines, as well as the remains of Celtic hillforts and Roman villas.
Riotinto has been at the centre of these mining activities throughout history. Victorian architecture and gigantic open-air mines exist side by side with ancient Tartessian and Roman pits and slag heaps. The Mining Museum depicts this part of the area's evolution.
Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain that is home to a number of open-air mines. These mines have been in operation for centuries and have played an important role in the city's economy. However, they have also left their mark on the city's architecture. Many of the buildings in Huelva date back to the Victorian era when the city was a major source of minerals for the British Empire. Today, these buildings are a reminder of the city's history and are popular tourist destinations. Visitors to Huelva can see Victorian-style buildings such as the City Hall, the Palace of San Telmo, and the Cathedral of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.
The Rio Tinto mines have been in operation for over 5,000 years, making them some of the oldest mines in the world. The mineral-rich site has yielded a number of valuable metals and minerals, including copper, gold, and silver. Today, the mines are still in operation and continue to be a major source of income for the company. In addition to metals and minerals, the mines also produce a variety of other materials such as sulfuric acid and potash.
You will find a group of dolmens at the El Pozuelo archaeological site. They are in the open air and show us an important part of the megalithic culture in Andalusia (Map).
Finally, you can visit the Huelva museum with important pieces from the Tartessian, Phoenician and Greek civilizations (Map).
The museum at Huelva has splendid items that once belonged to the Tartessian chieftains, bronzes of oriental inspiration and Phoenician and Greek ornaments. These are in sharp contrast with the mineral loading wharf built by the English in the port. A Muslim mining town from the 11th and 12th centuries is being excavated on Saltés Island. The museum also has Tartessian objects such as pottery, stelae, fabulous golden treasures found at El Carambolo, Ebora and Mairena, and a small statuette of the Phoenician goddess Astarté.
There is evidence of a civilization, still poorly understood, that developed at the extreme end of the 2nd millennium BCE near the town of Cádiz. This civilization is attributed to the semi-historic, semi-legendary state of Tartessus